2011-06-22 6-1-7 Quantifiers

Quantifiers are used to describe the number or amount of something. Certain quantifiers are used with certain kinds of nouns.
The nouns on the left side are examples of countable nouns. They can follow “a” or “an” in the singular. Adding “s” or “es” makes them plural. The nouns on the right side are examples of uncountable nouns. They cannot follow “a” or “an” and cannot be made plural. 
These quantifiers describe the number of a countable noun. “A couple of” usually means two. “A few” is approximately 2 – 4. It implies a small number. “Few” without “a” is almost none. It implies a smaller number than expected. “Several” is more than a few. “Few” and “several” are usually not used in questions. “Many” is a large number.
These quantifiers describe the amount of an uncountable noun. “A little” is a small amount. “Little” without “a” is almost none. It implies less than expected. “Little” isn’t used in questions. “Much” is a large amount, and is usually used in questions (“how much”) and negative statements (“not much”). “A great deal of” is a large amount.
These quantifiers can be used with either countable or uncountable nouns. “Any” is usually used only in questions or in negative statements. It means even the smallest number or amount. “Enough” is as many or as much as necessary. “Some” is an indefinite number or amount. “A lot of” is a large number or amount.
These quantifiers cannot be used in negative statements.
a couple of, few, a few, several , some, a little, little

All of the expressions of quantity can be used without a noun if the meaning is clear. Note that in this case, “of” is not used after “a lot.”

数量词用来描述物体的数或量。一定的数量词要和一定类型的名词一起使用。
左侧的名词都是可数名词的例子。它们的单数可以跟在 “a” 或 “an” 之后。名词后添加 “s” 或 “es” 就变为复数。右侧的名词都是不可数名词的例子。它们不能跟在 “a” 或 “an” 之后,也不能变为复数。
这些数量词描述可数名词的数目。”a couple of” 通常表示两个。”a few” 大致是 2 – 4 个。它暗示是个小数目。不带 “a” 的 “few” 表示几乎没有。它意味着一个比预想的还要小的数目。”several” 表示比几个稍微多一点。”few” and “several” 通常不用在疑问句中。”many” 表示一个大数目。
这些数量词描述不可数名词的量。”a little” 是一个小的量。不带 “a” 的 “little” 表示几乎没有。它意味着一个比预想的还要少的量。”little” 不用在疑问句中。”much” 表示一个大的量,通常用在疑问句(“how much”)和否定陈述句(“not much”)中。”a great deal of” 表示一个大的量。
这些数量词可以和可数或不可数名词一起使用。”any” 通常只用在疑问句或否定陈述句中。它意味着最小的数或量。”enough” 表示同必需的数量一样多。”some” 表示不确定的数或量。”a lot of” 表示一个大的数或量。
这些数量词不能用在否定陈述句中。
只要意思清楚,所有这些表示数量的词语都可以不接名词。注意在这种情况下,”a lot” 之后不接 “of”。

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